Margaret Crane's original 1968 prototype for the pregnancy test could make $6,000-9,000 at a Bonhams New York sale on June 16.
Marketed as Predictor, it enabled women to discreetly test for pregnancy at home.
Cassandra Hatton, Bonhams' director of the history of science & technology, said: "Ms. Crane's invention was one of the most revolutionary of the twentieth century, changing the lives of countless people.
"A key innovation, it played a tremendous role in the history of women's liberation. It is very exciting to have the opportunity to handle something that has quite literally changed the course of history."
Crane was working as a graphic designer for a pharmaceutical company when she came up with the idea.
She explains: "I approached the company [Organon] with the prototype but was told they would never do a consumer test because they would lose their 'doctor' business, which was considerable.
"But I was absolutely certain this product would be very useful. A woman should have the right to be the first to know if she was pregnant, and not have to wait weeks for an answer."
The auction will also feature a letter written by Martin Luther King from Albany jail and a letter sent by Lee Harvey Oswald to the head of the American Communist Party.
Please sign up to our free newsletter to receive exciting news about unique item auctions.