A document signed by William H Harrison is valued at $60,000-80,000 ahead of a sale at Christie's New York.
It will star in the auction of the Charles E Siegty collection on June 12.
Harrison is the shortest serving American president in history. He spent only 32 days in office before dying supposedly of pneumonia.
It was reported that he succumbed to the illness after he insisted on delivering an 8,000 word speech outside in the freezing cold on his inauguration day. He apparently did not wear a hat.
This story is, however, probably apocryphal. The sewerage conditions at the time were poor and today historians believe he may have died of typhoid.
His early exit from the world of politics means that signatures by Harrison dating to his time in office are the rarest of any US president.
Christie's explains that "only 20 examples have appeared at auction since 1974; only 4 in the last 10 years."
A 1751 autographed survey by George Washington is another highlight, with a valuation of $20,000-30,000.
Washington began his career as a land surveyor. This example was produced when he was aged just 19.
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