An upcoming Oscar-nominated documentary produced by magicians Penn and Teller seeks to replicate the camera obscura techniques adopted by Johannes Vermeer, the great painter of the Dutch golden age.
It is widely accepted that Vermeer used the camera obscura as an aid to composition, as his photo realistic paintings bear the hallmarks of the technique - although the extent to which he used it in his work remains a cause of disagreement for many art scholars.
It is thought the artist would sit in a room with the image projected onto a wall or screen - allowing him to reproduce it with a great deal of accuracy. Paint could even be overlaid over the projection, further enhancing the effect.
It is known that by the 18th century, painters used camera obscuras widely, with Canaletto being a notable example. During the 1600s the technology was less widespread - although it appears that Vermeer could have been an early adopter.
A number of optical effects that crop up within Vermeer's work testify to the use of the effect, including tricks of perspective and lighting that are unique to the camera. For instance, figures in the foreground often appear larger than those in the background, and parts of the work can appear out of focus.
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