The Furnace of Hell, a painting by a follower of Hieronymus Bosch, was the highlight of Sotheby's Of Royal Descent auction in London on February 24.
It sold for £115,000 ($178,485), an increase of 566% on a £15,000 ($23,280) estimate.
It is unknown exactly how many paintings Bosch produced over his lifetime (1450-1516). He only signed seven paintings and his style was copied throughout Europe.
Works attributed to Bosch's followers have continually beaten their estimates over the last few years. Last year, The Temptation of Saint Anthony made £170,500 ($264,624) against an estimate of £40,000 ($62,082) - up 326.2%.
Last year also saw another identically titled work make £80,000 ($124,614) against a valuation of £422,500 ($655,741), realising an increase of 428.1% at Sotheby's.
A German silver model of the battleship Kaiser Friedrich III also sold well, achieving £75,000 ($116,403).
The lot was given to Prince Heinrich of Prussia, who served as Germany's grand admiral from 1908-1918.
Sotheby's explained prior to the sale: "Elaborate silver ship models like the present one were very popular as prestigious gifts for the high nobility and for the high military command; (positions, which in imperial Germany were normally combined in the same person).
"For instance Emperor Wilhelm II's own ship's model collection in the 'Sternsaal' of the Berlin imperial residence (Berliner Stadtschloss��? consisted of fifteen comparable silver ship's models, all also prestigious gifts from various sources."
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