Christie's will offer Edvard Munch's Fertility, estimated at $25-35m, as the cover lot of its upcoming Evening Sale of Impressionist and Modern Art on May 4.
It is considered one of the most important works by the artist remaining in private hands.
Painted in the late 1890s, Fertility was originally purchased in 1902 by Dr Max Linde, the German patron responsible for helping Munch establish his career in Germany.
Since 1918, the large-format painting has remained in private collections in Scandinavia, with periodic loans to prestigious museum and gallery exhibitions throughout Europe and the United States.
The upcoming sale marks the first occasion that the work has ever been offered at public auction.
In other Edward Munch news, one of the earliest known hand-coloured impressions of a 20th century iconic image, Edvard Munch's Madonna, is being offered for sale at Bonhams Print auction on July 13.
Sure to be of great interest to collectors, the artwork has never before been seen in public and is estimated to bring between £500,000 - 700,000 ($750,000-1,050,000).